Critical Thinking & Fallacies ( __ .. ._.. )

Critical Thinking and Fallacies

  1. What is media literacy?

Simply put, media literacy is the ability to read, comprehend, analyze, & communicate information through various media platforms.

  1. Why do we need to read media from a critical point of view?

Media should be read through a critical point of view because not all information shown by media is completely reliable.

  1. Why is media literacy very important to democracy?

Being media literate helps people distinguish news that are either legitimate or fake. It lessens the general public’s chances of being misinformed.

  1. What is critical thinking?

Critical thinking is the ability to objectively analyze and evaluate the given data in order to form a sound judgement.

  1. Why is critical thinking very important to media literacy?

The ability to critically think is essential in media literacy as it helps an individual scrutinize data that he/she receives from media.

  1. Why is it important for students to develop their critical thinking skills?

Because students nowadays are mostly exposed to media, they should develop critical thinking skills as early as now as in order to avoid being misinformed.

    • Ad Hominem
      • Using the opponent’s socioeconomic status as a means to undermine his /her opinion
      • Using gender to invalidate the opponent’s argument, especially if the opposition is of a different gender
    • Strawman
      • Person A states that teens should be taught contraception methods so they can practice safe sex should they choose to have intercourse. Person B states that person A wants to give kids license to have sex with no consequences.
      • A biology teacher states that all organisms evolve. A student disagrees since he won’t accept the fact that humans evolved from bacteria.
    • Loaded question
      • Should we convict this criminal? (assumes that person being discussed is a criminal)
      • Have you stopped doing that? (automatically assumes that person is doing the act)
    • Begging the question
      • Cigarettes are deadly because smoking can kill people.
      • Death penalty is wrong because killing people is immoral.
    • Black or white
      • If you don’t like the Marcoses, then you must support the Aquinos.
      • You’re either with me or against me.
    • Slippery slope
      • Students should study on weekends because if they don’t, they’ll fail in exams. If they fail in exams, they won’t graduate. If they don’t graduate, they won’t be able to make a decent living.
      • Legalizing marijuana for medical purposes will lead people to believe it is an acceptable drug, which in turn will result in an increase of drug users in the country.
    • Burden of proof
      • Person A states that ghosts are real. Person B does not believe Person A. Person A then asks Person B to prove that ghosts aren’t real.
      • A child will continue to believe that fairies exist until someone will prove to her that they don’t.
    • Composition/division
      • The elements sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are dangerous to humans. Therefore, table salt (NaCl) should not be consumed by humans.
      • Hydrogen (H) is not wet. Oxygen (O) is also not wet. Therefore, water (H2O) is not wet.
    • Bandwagon
      • The new smartphone must be the best gadget in the market because everyone wants to get their hands on it.
      • A citizen is going to vote for candidate A because many people are also voting her.
    • Appeal to emotion
      • A fast food commercial encourages audiences to eat at the restaurant by showing a happy family enjoying their food.
      • A con artist asks for hefty donations as he fools people into thinking that his daughter has leukemia & is in dire need of money.

SOURCES:

http://examples.yourdictionary.com/ad-hominem.html

https://effectiviology.com/straw-man-arguments-recognize-counter-use/

http://www.fallacyfiles.org/loadques.html

https://www.logicallyfallacious.com/tools/lp/Bo/LogicalFallacies/53/Begging-the-Question

http://lucidphilosophy.com/black-and-white-fallacy/

https://criticalthinkeracademy.com/courses/informal-fallacies/lectures/1106551

https://yandoo.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/fallacies-of-composition-and-division/

http://thevisualcommunicationguy.com/2017/09/14/the-bandwagon-appeal-advertising/

https://philosophy.lander.edu/scireas/emotion.html

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